Following up on my previous blog post (read Part I here) I present today some quotes from more terminologists (hard to pick!). Read the full interviews from these and more experts by accessing TermCoord’s second collection of interviews: Why is terminology your passion. I hope that after reading Part I and Part II, I have encouraged you to access both collections and read the interviews to find your favorite(s) and learn about how terminologists have come to work in and love terminology. Read More
You probably already know TermCoord’s “Why is Terminology Your Passion”, a collection of interviews of terminologists who talk about their experience with Terminology and terminology management. So here are a few quotes taken from the first collection. Of course, my advice is that you read all the interviews. Read Part II here. Read More
I just had to reblog this excellent article by Olga and posted in TermCoord’s blog on the importance of terminology in translation studies, especially for those of you who are in the translation industry.
Thanks to Olga and TermCoord for allowing me to share this in my blog.
Entrevista con la terminóloga, Dra. María Teresa Cabré en el programa Don de Lenguas (U de Salamanca)
Note: If you don’t speak Spanish I recommend that you read a recent interview to Dr. Cabré (in English) by TermCoord. Click here to read.
La Universidad de Salamanca, en su blog Don de Lenguas, entrevista a la Dra. María Teresa Cabré, catedrática de terminología y lingüística de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra y fundadora del Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada (IULA), el grupo de investigación IULATERM y el Observatori de Neologia.
How scientific terminology can change our perception of life – a guest post by Yolanda Gómez (Okodia)
One of the translation specialties most demanded in our profoundly globalised society is scientific translation. There are continuous technical and scientific changes in all parts of the world, created by the minds of researchers and scientists working in different countries and different native languages—who, if they want to communicate their findings to the international community, must do so in a shared language.
But, how can certain terms that are deeply rooted in the culture of a specific community be translated into another culture with completely different linguistic and cultural roots? For example, how can a scientific text originally written in Mandarin Chinese, Arabic, Turkish, or Russian be translated into English or Spanish? Read More
It would be hard to describe in a few lines the vast experience that Uwe Muegge has in terminology, translation, localization, and education. He currently is the VP of Strategic Technology Solutions at OmniLingua Worldwide, a language service provider, but his credentials include filing a patent for an automatic terminology extraction process the year after he graduated from college, being a corporate terminologist for a Fortune 500 company, serving as translation and terminology consultant for the European Commission and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as providing instruction in translation and terminology to graduate students in Europe and the United States. Read More
A few years ago I was visiting a friend in Geneva and every time I walked passed WIPO’s headquarters I felt a particular attraction. I don’t know if it was that beautiful building, or if it’s just a coincidence that a few years later I am interviewing a terminology expert who worked at WIPO. It is a great honor to talk to Sérgio Barros, a Portuguese linguist and terminologist and author of several articles on terminology (See publications and presentations in his website). Thank you for this unique opportunity to peek inside your terminology world.
- I have always worked for international organizations and I know that you have to deal with many languages at the same time and with people with different cultural backgrounds. What has been your experience as a fellow terminologist in that multicultural and multilingual environment?
Working as a Fellow in the patent translation department at WIPO was an invaluable experience. Not only did the fellowship allow me to improve my skills in terminology, but it also further instilled in me a passionate interest in languages. It motivated me to improve the languages that I speak and it sparked my interest in learning one or two more, maybe Arabic or German… I think that’s because I’ve met interesting people, many of them incredible polyglots.
Many of the people that I’ve met have a special interest in the Spanish language and culture. Chinese and Japanese are particularly relevant in the world of intellectual property, judging by the number of patent applications submitted by their countries. Portuguese may not be regarded as an important language to learn but I believe that it will gain more importance in the future as a strategic factor in business and economy-related environments.
Working in an environment with such richness of languages gave me access to cultural believes and traditions from countries near Portugal such as Spain, France and Switzerland, and as distant as Lebanon, Russia, China, Japan, Korea, or the USA. In the end it became the perfect context to promote my own country.
The period that I’ve spent in Geneva also allowed me to engage in a sporting life with Team WIPO, a group of fellows and colleagues who usually run along the shore of Lac Léman or in the woodsy scenery of Chambésy, just for fun or in competitions. In a nutshell, I can say that I’ve lived the “WIPO experience” to its fullest, fruitfully combining work and leisure.
- How is terminology managed at WIPO? Do you have a guide or are there any established procedures to manage terminology?
One of the main goals of the Terminology Unit at the WIPO is to provide terminology support to the PCT Translation Service that is responsible for patent translation at WIPO. One example is a termbase that is now publicly available on the WIPO website. WIPO Pearl contains terminology extracted from a large corpus of patent documents that is searchable in PATENTSCOPE, also on the WIPO website. Since the termbase covers ten languages (Arabic, German, English, Spanish, French, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Chinese) it is essential that all contributors follow a common set of guidelines, that they create terminological records in different languages following the same theoretical and methodological principles. The guidelines are accommodated to the needs of the potential users of the termbase – not only translators but also terminologists, domain experts, patent drafters, etc. – who will have access to information such as head terms, synonyms, and defining contexts taken from reliable sources about concepts newly created by inventors and also well-established ones.
- Intellectual Property is a relevant issue in terminology. Can you give us any insights about your work in that area?
I had never worked in the area of intellectual property before the fellowship at WIPO, so it’s an area that is relatively new for me. Apart from the initial period of getting familiarized with the terms and concepts related to the whole process of patenting an invention it soon became very clear that terminology is important not just for translators of patents but – I dare say – for almost every stakeholder in that area.
Based on my experience at WIPO, I noticed that there is a contrast between the different working languages at WIPO in terms of the quantity and quality of sources from where it is possible to obtain terminological information. Many of the concepts that one finds in patent documents don’t have a designation in Portuguese, either because they were recently created and/or because there’s no industry in the country for that particular type of technology or innovation. In many subject fields, specialist authors borrow terms from other languages, usually English. The number of patent applications originally drafted in Portuguese is low when compared to other languages such as English or Chinese. There’s also a limited availability of academic works and specialized journals on certain concepts and subject fields.
Many of the tasks carried out posed new challenges for me, e.g. identifying a newly-created concept related to an invention, researching its designation, judging its stability in a given field, relating it with other concepts in the same subject field or in a different one.
When I look at these findings and think about the kind of work that terminologists do with patent documents, I see the value of terminology work much beyond the need to increase the number of resources for language professionals, translators in particular. It becomes evident to me that terminology serves a more general purpose, that of promoting a country’s scientific and technological development.
- Based on your experience in concept analysis, how is the lexico-semantic analysis done and what terminology extraction tool do you use?
When I analyze a concept, which usually implies identifying its characteristics, the relations with other concepts in a conceptual structure, among other things, my goal is to acquire knowledge about that concept, so I research information about it. Lexico-semantic analysis enables me to obtain some sort of information from a text or collection of texts about the concept that I’m investigating. The sort of information that I’m able to obtain refers to the meanings of words and the relationships between the meanings of words, which implies understanding the mechanisms and rules of a linguistic system, in particular its semantic structure.
The lexico-semantic analysis is performed with the help of tools or systems such as concordancers (AntConc, Sketch Engine, WordSmith) and term extractors (TermoStat, GaleXtract, Sketch Engine, lately I’ve been experimenting TaaS). It would be difficult for me to name a preferred tool… I like to experiment different tools and compare results. Also, I think it is very important to try their features, which vary from tool to tool, and see whether they are suited to the needs of my research. For example, while some tools only give you a raw list of extracted linguistic forms, others provide more information, such as statistical information, orthographic variants, structuring sketches, clouds, etc. In a previous interview here in your blog, Barbara Inge Karsch went to the heart of the issue when she talked about “usability improvements” and “selection criteria” when talking about term extractors. Nowadays, there are sophisticated tools and systems available out there but above all terminologists must always be aware that these tools are merely… tools. What matters the most are the theoretical principles and the criteria with which you perform the extraction and/or select the term candidates. Otherwise, one could question the importance of terminologists…
- Tell us a little bit about the Cognitive-Semantics in Collaborative Networks (CogniNET) project. How did it start and what was the outcome?
That project stemmed from the initiative of a research team of engineers at INESC TEC in Portugal that were seeking researchers in the field of linguistics with a terminological perspective. Therefore, collaboration was put in place with CLUNL, the linguistics research unit of Universidade Nova de Lisboa. That collaboration in itself is already a big achievement. Putting engineers and linguists, who have different backgrounds and often diverging ways of approaching the same topic, to work together and collaborate is a stimulating challenge and we communicated and exchanged points of view from engineering and linguistics/terminology with great success.
The CogniNET project sought to address problems raised by information and knowledge sharing in the context of short life-cycle collaborative networks, such as the need to (re)create, (re)use, edit and synthesize conceptual representations according to very specific needs. The main achievement of the project was the development of a fully functional platform called conceptME, whose function is to assist experts in the process of reaching a shared conceptualization of their domain in the form of a conceptual structure. The conceptualization framework, supported by terminology and knowledge representation, allows users to create and manage collaborative spaces, upload and organize a textual corpus, obtain lists of terms and their contexts, and also use a set of templates to relate domain-specific concepts.
- You have a degree in linguistics and a Master’s in linguistics, lexicology and lexicography? How did you go from that to pursuing a PhD in terminology? What about terminology attracted you to follow that path?
The areas of lexicology and lexicography are closely related to terminology. In fact, there has been some debate around what differentiates lexicology from terminology. The people who taught me lexicology and terminology during my undergraduate program in linguistics at Universidade Nova de Lisboa are aware of theoretical issues such as these. That is a major component in their curricula. I guess that they first sparked my interest in learning the theory of terminology, then in applying it. Before I enrolled in the Master’s program I was already interested in terminology and I remember now having worked on the subject of collocations in the specialized language of football based on transcriptions of four different matches, two broadcast on the radio and two other on TV. What a monumental task it was! That was my first transcription work. In my Master’s dissertation I was already fascinated with concept relations, so I began studying lexico-semantic relations and their use in terminology structuring. In short, lexicology, lexicography and also terminology were constantly present in my academic studies. In the end, it was quite natural to pursue a PhD in terminology, where these areas can be viewed as interfacing, overlapping, coinciding, diverging…
- Finally, my blog is targeted to beginners in terminology and I have talked about some basic concepts like the semiotic triangle, designations, etc. Some people might think that you don’t really need to know this to be a terminologist. How is theory applied to practice, in your experience?
Those are essential concepts to any terminologist. That’s precisely what shapes practice. I almost dare to suggest that you could’ve asked “How theory guides practice?” instead. My experience tells me that applying theory to practice is challenging, either because of time constraints or lack of resources, depending on the tasks at hand and whether it’s an ad hoc or a systematic research. Quite often, terminologists need to find alternative solutions to specific needs. That’s one important soft skill of their profile. Back to your question, for example, theory says that domain experts are usually the most reliable sources of information that terminologists can consult and work with in order to define concepts, identify synonyms, draft or check definitions, build a concept system, etc. But when they’re not around, terminologists rely on specialized documentation upon which some sort of lexico-semantic analysis is carried out. Some might argue that such an approach focuses more on lexical units and meaning rather than on terms and concepts. That could make a case for arguing that theory doesn’t apply to practice. However, in my experience, especially when I participated in the construction of a collaborative platform, it became a prime requisite to recognize different semiotic systems, adopt methods more akin to lexicography and work according to a terminological theoretical framework. Dealing with lexical units and meanings doesn’t erase basic concepts such as semiotic triangle, concept, designation, object, etc. They may be blurred or masked in the outcome of your work but the set of principles behind it mark the difference. After all, the theory is almost always “hidden” behind the application.
Barbara Inge Karsch is the owner of BIK Terminology, a terminology consultancy and training company. As consultant and trainer, Barbara works with companies and organizations on terminology training, terminology development and implementation of terminology management systems (TMS). She draws on her 14-year experience with J.D. Edwards (now Oracle) and Microsoft.
As US delegate to ISO TC 37, Barbara is leading the revision of ISO 12616 (Translation-Oriented Terminography). She is the chair of ATA’s Terminology Committee.
Barbara holds a lectureship at New York University and KU Leuven at Antwerp. She completed both a BA and MA in translation and interpretation and has done PhD-level research in terminology management.
I recently interviewed Rodolfo Maslias, Head of the Terminology Coordination Unit of the European Parliament, and he mentioned that translators should see terminology as an opportunity to differentiate themselves in an increasingly competitive market. I have been promoting my blog on Twitter where I have made contact with a lot of translators but only a few terminologists. Having trained so many people, are terminologists mostly translators or could anyone be a terminologist? (A software specialist, a project manager, maybe?). Is there a preferred background to become a good terminologist?
I fully agree with Rodolfo that translators could take the opportunity, and some certainly do. It is tough, though, to do it on an on-and-off basis. In other words, if a translator acts as terminologist, possibly even without training they won’t be fast enough, if they don’t do it often enough. So, the key is to get started and then specialize in it, so that you keep your skills up.
Many people do terminology work. Here are a few examples: Subject matter experts (SME) define the concepts of their field, branding and marketing people name concepts; translators research equivalents in their languages; project managers distribute terminologies to users. All of this is part of the vast field called terminology management. So, many people carry out one task here and there. But who might be in the best position to focus on it? Terminology literature distinguishes two main models: the SME-terminologists who are experts in their fields and then become more and more involved in doing terminology work; and terminologist-generalists whose specialty is terminology work and who develop expertise in a particular subject field that they choose to focus on.
That said, when I look at who I have trained and who became really good at it, I’d say it was the people who were willing to study the theory, read the literature, and also give it some time. It is a misconception that anyone doing terminology work could become a terminologist. It is a specialization and you either focus on it or you won’t be fast enough or produce the quality needed. So, in my observations it is often the personal traits that matter most.
- Many courses refer to the need for terminologists to develop soft skills, such as negotiation and communication skills to deal with conflict during terminology projects. In your experience, is this a necessary skill for a terminologist? Have you yourself faced situations of conflict that required major intervention? I am thinking, for example, of cross-product, cross-functional groups, with so many stakeholders involved, like the ones you have worked with.
Personal traits, soft skills, communication skills…yes, they are important.
I’d say I have not been part of a major conflict, but I have seen things go wrong because best practices were not followed. For example, one team left it to a high-ranking manager to make the call for new feature names. But this person wasn’t really that much in touch with linguistic aspects of the product. If you get called in at that point, you explain why particular names are not ideal and why the process isn’t serving the organization well. But that is all you can do in this case. In another scenario, higher-ranking employees overruled the well-researched decision by the terminologist. She implemented the new suggestion reluctantly. A bit later, another yet higher-ranking employee had another idea and the terminology was changed again. That, too, is not a good approach.
When, as terminologists, we do our research, line out options and their pros and cons for the stakeholders, then drive for consensus, we have a good chance of avoiding conflict. We might still need to understand the motivations of the stakeholders and work with them to meet their needs. But that is part of the process.
I’d say most conflict arises because either the preparatory work wasn’t done or the team doesn’t understand what the ultimate goal of terminology work is for the organization. If we focus on doing the research and the educational work, we have won more than half the battle.
- You have ample experience with ISO as a US delegate of the Technical Committee 37 and you are the leader for the revision of ISO 12616 (Translation-Oriented Terminography). That must be a very challenging job. You implemented terminology-related ISO standards at J.D. Edwards (now Oracle). When you come back from an ISO meeting with a new terminology standard, how does the process of implementing it in a large company such as Oracle start and end?
Let me explain a bit about ISO standards and the process. It’s not like they are new inventions that will turn your work in a company upside down. Just the opposite: Our terminology standards grow out of the real world. For example, for ISO 12616 we checked what the current standard has to offer; now we are looking at what is currently going on in industry and analyze the need; and then we will be closing that gap. That means that future users will get a document that assists them in setting up their processes correctly rather than figuring out everything on an ad-hoc basis.
- I have a list of 15 terminology extraction tools in my blog and also I provide a link to WordLo’s terminology blog which lists a few more. I am impressed that developers have been so productive in just a few years. What would be, in your opinion, the ideal terminology extraction tool for the future? Or is there a dream tool that is already in the works?
I don’t know that I can draw a dream tool. I think many developers are focused on improving statistical and rules-based extraction mechanisms, so there is lots of focus there. I would like to see usability improvements, such as the fewest number of clicks or key strokes to get from the term candidate in my list to an entry in my database. I’d also not accept a tool that doesn’t at least tell me the frequency of the term in my source document and give me a decent piece of context.
What I find more fascinating than the tool itself is how we work with the list of term candidates. Everyone who has never tackled a large-scale extraction project spends a lot of time trying to figure out how to not miss a good candidate, but drop the bad ones quickly. Each candidate is different and you might include it for a different reason. So, here, too, you’d have to be pretty specialized and very quick in applying a set of selection criteria.
- Lastly, could you comment briefly on your article “Terminology work and crowdsourcing” in the forthcoming John Benjamins’ Handbook of Terminology?
There is a clear need for more practical guidance. Many people do terminology work, but they miss practical guidance. At least my article on crowdsourcing terminology work tries to tie in the theoretical foundation of our field with the practical aspects. My goal is to help those in charge of terminology projects and who are to include the crowd in a terminology project avoid mistakes and benefit from the technological advances that crowdsourcing has brought us.
|Barbara Inge Karsch has an impressive resume which you can read in detail in her LinkedIn Profile, if you have an account. If not, you will also find it at her blog. Her blog, BIK terminology, has lots of useful information on terminology and it’s a great learning place to where I always keep going back. TermCoord also interviewed her earlier this year, and you can read the full interview here.|
Earlier this year, TermCoord interviewed Rita Temmerman, another one of my terminology gurus. I share one of the questions, but you can read the full interview here, which includes a short bio. At the end I offer a short list for further reading. Hope you like it and find it useful!
“You developed the Sociocognitive terminology theory, based on case studies on categorisation and naming in the life sciences (DNA technology), which led to the publication of your book “Toward New Ways of Terminology Description. The Sociocognitive Approach”. The highlight of this book is the fact that you question the validity of traditional terminology theory. How would you define terminology then? And can you explain us briefly the Sociocognitive Approach that you present?
My criticism of the traditional Vienna school of terminology was a consequence of years of frustration in teaching terminology theory based on the Vienna school approach. Together with two of my colleagues working at the Brussels school for translation and interpretation, I took a training at Vienna Infoterm in 1986. We were taught the principles of “terminology work” (as it was called there, a literal translation of German Terminologiearbeit). The Vienna approach was onomasiological. The idea was to first delineate “a concept”, then to give it a place in a tree structure (based on logical (IS_A) or on partitive (PART_OF) relations), then to define the concept in an Aristotelian definition and finally to choose a preferred term to name the concept. The Vienna school approach was allegedly not interested in language as a cognitive tool, but only in the naming potential of language.
These principles were clear-cut and straightforward. The problem was that my students in translation and interpretation were not field specialists but applied linguists who needed textual information to understand a subject matter and to make a terminological analysis. In most texts we wanted to use for terminological analysis with our students, we found ambiguity, synonymy, vagueness and – what was worse from a Vienna school perspective – we became increasingly aware that there were good reasons for these phenomena in language, because the advancement of understanding and the negotiation of meaning go together. We concluded that terminology studies needed to be descriptive and that occasional prescriptivism was not for translators to decide but rather for field specialists or legal specialists for that matter.”
I also mention some of her works in different places in my blog, which you can find by doing a search, but here is a short list of some of her works that can be read online.
2. Questioning the univocity ideal. The difference between socio-cognitive Terminology and traditional Terminology. Read here.
3. Research Gate offers a list of several articles published by Temmerman. Consult here. (You have to sign up to get access to the articles).
Terminology: Talking with the Pros: Interview with Rodolfo Maslias, Head of the Terminology Coordination Unit of the European Parliament
Thank you, Rodolfo for this interview. It is an honour to have you as my first guest in this series of short interviews with experienced terminologists who can guide us on our journey in the terminology field. In parallel with your tasks in the European Parliament, you are teaching terminology at the University of Luxembourg and I cannot think of a better person to give us a perspective of terminology from an academic and a professional point of view.
What has been your most rewarding experience and what has been your biggest challenge both as a teacher and as a terminologist?
Having studied and dealt with languages for many years as translator at the European Parliament, I am inevitably a word lover. My other passion being culture, I am convinced and it is a personal mission for me to convincethat language is a fundamental cultural right. The very quick expansion of terminology becoming a science connected with the needs of multilingual globalised communication and with a presence in all institutional, industrial or academic activity makes terminology an ideal field for transmitting the passion of language and culture.
In general terms, how is terminology managed at TermCoord? Is there a systematic step-by-step process or do you handle terminology on a case-by-case basis? How many people are involved?
The European Union is the most multilingual institutional translation “machine” with 24 official languages and 552 language combinations. The European Parliament now has real legislative power making each translation an original legislative act. Linguistic consistency and terminological accuracy is now the pillar of quality work, not only for translators but also for drafters usually writing in a language other than their mother tongue.
Terminology is thus an inherent need of every EP political or administrative activity. Translators, interpreters and drafters constantly encounter terminological issues and they need to consult reliable resources. All our terminology work has as main tool the common EU terminology database IATE. Since terminology is a living being exactly as languages are, reliability of a database means constant updating and therefore this database that you from outside can only consult (and you are 3500 to do so every hour), IATE is for us in the EU Institutions an interactive platform, fed every day by all translators with some 300 new terms resulting from the research needed during translation.
Terminology is thus produced in the translation units in all institutions and the Terminology Coordination Unit coordinates, organizes and supports this work. In the Parliament, each translation unit appoints at least 2 (but up to 8) terminologists, who undertake terminology consolidation and validation at language level. They make our Terminology Network of more than 100 translators-terminologists coordinated by our team. TermCoord has 10 permanent staff members, one “rotating terminologist” seconded for 3 months from a translation unit and one coordinator of the (still internal) interinstitutional portal EurTerm. In the 6 years of its existence, TermCoord has had some 80 very high skilled trainees in the fields of terminology, communication and computational linguistics, which learn how to evolve in a public institution but also help us connecting with the constant evolution of the science of terminology.
The terminologist’s job description includes a long list of duties, but what would you say is his/her most important responsibility?
The responsibility of a terminologist in a public multilingual legislative institution is ensuring quality and linguistic consistency of translation. Keeping a huge database with more than 11 million terms updated and reliable needs advanced knowledge; from the basic philosophical distinction between concept and term to the practical know-how related to definition and referencing. This work needs a special skill that is fixed in the “terminology framework” of the EP and provided by special training that TermCoord offers tailor made to various groups, terminologists, translators, trainees, interpreters and drafters of legislative documents.
What is your recommendation for terminology beginners?
As I said before, terminology is becoming more and more a science per se but also an interdisciplinary need for any activity. All companies with a worldwide activity have or use huge translation services and have also a high standard terminology service and database. This offers very wide possibilities of training and acquiring advanced skills, a constantly increasing and easily accessible collection of resources, more simply said: a wonderful new world to explore touching the most fascinating aspects of our globalised world: multilingual communication, multicultural coexistence. So first step for a new terminologist is to see this task as a passionate adventure and challenge; and then to explore and use the best channels to acquire the deep knowledge of mining, producing and managing terminology combining all approaches, from the academic knowledge based approach using ontologies to the more terminographical one used for huge databases like IATE and the ones of other big international organizations and industries.
Some people might think that new technologies and tools will replace translators and terminologists. But, in your opinion, what is the future of terminology management? Should we consider it as a promising career path?
We, linguists, know better than anyone else that there will never be a machina sapiens. Especially for content like language that is constantly evolving and related to each thought of the human brain in so many different cultures, human will always teach the machine and will always select its output. So, the machine is not a competitor but a tool. And through the evolving research and IT evolution, it becomes a very useful tool. Translation and interpretation will partly be done in next future by or with the machine using huge combined translation memories. But a translation memory that only reproduces a former translation is a very dangerous threat for the quality of any translation if it is not combined with the terminological quality control. Therefore today in the CAT tools used by translators, also in the European Institutions, we integrate automatic term recognition from reliable terminological thesauri. Every technological effort to ease translation and to increase output is inevitably connected with an effort of terminological accuracy. All of us have tested various automatic term extractors, but in any development of such software, linguists are required to set every research criterion, even the purely statistical filters that do not deliver if they are not based on a linguistic logic.
We have to recognize that the humanistic values of studies worldwide are suffering because of the global trend to make everything a product in a world market. Also, easy travelling and communication have made multilingualism a rather common skill. So, competition for a translator or interpreter is becoming very difficult and jobs are getting more difficult to find all the time.
In every field of intellectual activity, a specialization is nowadays the only secret to succeed and to find a job. Terminology is an excellent choice for such a specialization for linguists, especially when it is combined with the necessary knowledge of software which is applied for the integration of terminology features in the expanding, new, and very multilingual trans-phrasing technology.
Thank you for a very interesting and useful insight into your world of terminology. No doubt this is a very exciting and evolving field. I am sure that this will encourage language specialists to see terminology management in a new light and, as you mentioned, as a way to specialize and provide added value to their clients and the organizations they work for.