Clipping is used in the creation of new terms, also known as “truncation” or “shortening”.
There are four types of clipping: Initial (or apheresis), medial (or syncope), final (or apocope) and complex clipping.
Final or hind clipping (also apocope) is the most common type of clipping in which the first part of a term is maintained and the rest is clipped: ad(vertisement), cable(gram), exam(ination), pop(ular music). Termium defines it as “A word formed by omitting the last part of the form from which it is derived.” Some examples in English are:
- fridge for refrigerator
I have been asked this question a few times, as the links I used on this site are no longer active. Therefore, I went to their website and looked for it and, indeed, it does not longer exist. They had changed the link several times and I had some hard time trying to catch up with them. The only document that I found which was “still alive” was Pavel’s Handbook of Terminology in English and Spanish (oddly enough, the Spanish is under the French heading).
For those of you who don’t know, the Pavel Tutorial, or The Pavel, called after its author, Silvia Pavel, was initially intended for Canadian government personnel but was open to the public. It was created by the Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) of the Government of Canada, which also developed the TERMIUM database.
The interactive, six-lesson Tutorial was developed as a result of a request from ISO to the Translation Bureau of Canada, as ISO needed help to produce standards in the area of terminology methodology. The tutorial was launched at the ISO TC 37 plenary in Paris in August 2004.
In any case, the tutorial is gone. I am sad because it was one of the first sources that I used and it had some good material. However, I understand that many things have happened since 2004 and the tutorial had quite a few things that were outdated, so it would be logical to assume that they decided to archive it for good.
In any case, I still have in my blog the “Key Points” of the Pavel tutorial. Also The Pavel was based on the Handbook, so you can still find a lot of information there.
The International Institute for Terminology Research (IITF) was created on January 25, 1989, in Austria, by the International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM), to promote and coordinate basic research in terminology; advance terminology training; provide those actively engaged in terminology research, especially academics, with a professional platform for exchange of experience and information and for joint research and training projects. It holds training courses and acts as co-organizer of scientific symposia and conferences.2
Its sphere of operations focuses on (i) the promotion and coordination of basic research in terminology and (ii) the advancement of terminology training.
The University of Vaasa in Finland hosts the IITF Secretariat and its Executive Board includes terminology experts:
- Professor Johan Myking, University of Bergen, Norway (President, Official relations
- Professor Gerhard Budin, University of Vienna, Austria (Vice-President, Summer School, Training, and Projects)
- Professor Gisle Andersen, Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway (Publication Terminology Science and Research)
- Associate professor Marita Kristiansen, Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway (Publication Terminology Science and Research)
- Professor Øivin Andersen, University of Bergen, Norway
- Professor Nina Pilke, University of Vaasa, Finland
- Assistant professor Niina Nissilä, University of Vaasa, Finland (Treasurer, Membership issues and finances)
- Sergej Grinev, Prof. Cecelia Plested Alvarez, Prof. Bassey Antia, Prof. Larissa Alekseeva (Co-opted members).
IITF issues the following publications:
- TSR “Terminology Science & Research” journal is an international scientific review that focuses on terminological research. The TSR is published in electronic form since 2003. Free issues can be downloaded from here (The newest issue is for members only)
- IIFT-series is a selection of articles from Terminology Science & Research published in book form every two years. A list of IITF publications can be found here.
- TermNet News, available to members only.
Membership of IITF is available on an individual or institutional basis. Membership includes receiving the journals TRS and TermNet News free of charge; members are, furthermore, entitled to purchase IITF publications and to avail themselves of a number of TermNet services at especially favorable rates.
Those who know me well know that I’m willing to give everything a try, at least once. After all, I started this blog three years ago without knowing anything about blogging or social media. During a recent visit to Washington, D.C., Gala Gil Amat showed me how to do a Facebook live as a first test and I loved it. So I’ve been thinking that I could give it a try and occasionally say hi and tell you what I am up to. You can like my IMOT Facebook page here: https://www.facebook.com/inmyownterms/. You will find that first video by Gala in my page.
I will be doing them from time to time, but if someone else wants to do it too and talk about what they do in Terminology, this could be your chance to do it. Also, I know most of you are on Twitter, but for those who don’t have an account, just wanted to let you know that you are missing out on a lot. I recently started reposting blog posts from my archives and apparently people like it. So feel free to follow me: @patriciambr.
Remember that you can always Contact me. Or if you don’t like forms, shoot me an email directly to email@example.com and let me know what you are thinking.
Have a great weekend!
Strategy Two: Build relationships in the terminology community
There is a strong terminology community. People are coming together to energize each other and share experiences. TermNet now has one-on-one training for those who need specific help. In addition, they organize their summer schools in which people gather to get training and exchange ideas and make the terminology community stronger.
A way to build a strong terminology community for your project, Gabriele recommends making a stakeholder analysis as per ISO 29383, Annex A (Tools for stakeholder analysis). The tool called the “Power and Interest grid”, is a simple four-sided square that helps identify those who can help you with the challenges of time, people, and resources. Sit with the terminology champions who are already supporting you, and identify those who have the power to decide on resources and those who have an interest in terminology. Depending on their level of high/low power and high/low interest, there are four strategies that can be applied: “Manage closely”, “Keep satisfied”, “Keep informed”, and “Monitor”. Read More
In this second part, Gabriele talks about approaches for left- and right- brainers and gives useful statistics that you can use in your own business case. She explains how a “positive deviance” approach helped TermNet thrive in the face of challenges.
Terminology is everywhere. Therefore, Terminology is important.
Make sure to explain that terminology covers all the specific corporate language: abbreviations and acronyms, brand names and trademarks, concepts and terms of your industry or subject field, job titles and descriptions, legal relevant data, product description and number, including the nonverbal such as drawings, labels, signs, etc. When you talk to stakeholders to explain this, avoid scornful or insolent attitudes; be respectful to gain their trust.
Approaches for left-brainers. Left-brainers are more logical. They rely on calculations and figures, so your approach should be to talk about the lack of policy, the lack of guidelines and goals, and lack of trust in the validation of data. This approach is a bit on the negative side, thus the best strategy is to mix it with the right-brainers approach. Ask them, “In an ideal world, what do you wish to see or have?” They always want to follow clear rules and guidelines, have access to a unique and reliable source, and reduce search and validation times.
The four steps to implement TM are an analysis of the status-quo, preparation of a terminology policy, standardization of the terminology process, and integration of the process into the product lifecycle. While implementing these steps, people always come before the process applied and the tools used. This means that you need to get the commitment of the people who are creating and using terminology or are directly impacted by terminology.
Gabriele Sauberer, Director of TermNet, was the presenter during this webinar and I have to say I’m really happy to see TermNet take on the webinar series challenge! If you missed it, I hope this post gives you a good idea of what she discussed. I tried to complement her information with additional resources, so I hope you find it even more useful. I learned so much in less than an hour! Thanks Gabriele for sharing your experience with us.
I don’t want to overwhelm my readers, but all the information she provided is very useful, so I have divided this summary into three parts. I have previously said here that I don’t stick to minimum words since this is an educational blog. I created a new cloud tag called “TMstrategy” to add this and other related posts.
In response to their recent survey, the community answered the question about the top challenges in terminology at the organizational level, as follows: (1) lack of resources (time, personnel, budget), (2) lack of awareness of the importance of terminology management (TM), and (3) lack of consistency in terminology.
Also called the “Analogue Rule of Naming”, it is one of the methods used to create terms in target languages. Kostas Valeontis (Physicist-Electronic Engineer and President of the Hellenic Society for Terminology (ELETO)) came up with the term in 1997, and his rule states that “when forming a term in a language (target language) in order to name a new concept that has been primarily named in another language (source language), the namer’s first choice should be to apply a term-formation mechanism analogous to the term-formation mechanism used for the source language term”.
In order words, the rule dictates that the mechanism that was used to form a term in the source language should be the same when creating the target language term.
I was recently contacted by Michael Lewis, recruiter of “The Big Word“, asking me if I could share this opening for a terminologist in their company. He sent me the link to a PDF that contains all the details.
TERMINOLOGIST. For more information, write directly to him: Michael.Lewis@thebigword.com
Best of luck to all applicants!
Thanks for participating in the raffle. I got excited to see how much people really are motivated by Terminology, so I decided to give away five t-shirts instead of two. Here are the winners:
Kristyna Kubova, from the Czech Republic, the translation book
Natalia Chaves Oliveira, from Brazil, the terminology book
T-shirt winners are:
- Ana Bennasar, Spain
- Isabel Sanllehi Palet, Spain
- Laurence Rapaille, Belgium
- Martina Abagnale, Italy
- Dolores Gutiérrez, Ecuador
Congratulations to the winners! Please send me your exact address and t-shirt winners your t-shirt size. Please remember that the American sizes are usually bigger than the rest of the world J
Make sure your address is correct, as last year one book got lost in the mail.
Here are the pics that I took with some of my colleagues who were witnesses to this event. A huge thanks to them for helping me out: From left to right, Lezlie Nicholson from Mexico, me, Inés Illarramendi from Uruguay, and Carolina Landsberg from Chile. Excellent colleagues and friends!
Now, I can’t wait to keep celebrating! Thanks to all of you for your support.
Just a quick reminder that I will be holding the raffle tomorrow. This year I will be accompanied again by some of my colleagues at the IDB who have agreed to be witnesses of this important event. So stay tuned. Take into account time differences with your country and Washington D.C. (Eastern time), as I plan to do it in the morning. Thanks to everybody who participated. But, yes, you still have time to sign up! Send me an email by the end of the day today to firstname.lastname@example.org and indicate which book you want, or if you’d rather have a T-shirt. Hurry up!